Zin Eddine Dadach


Similar to nature, divine laws of charity for Muslims are also indicated in the Quran. There is, therefore, a complete harmony between the signs of Allah (SWT) in nature, scientifically described by universal laws and His words in the Holy Quran. 

“And We have made a shining lamp (sun). And We have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water that We may produce therewith corn and vegetation and gardens of thick growth”  (Quran, 78:6-16) [1].

It seems like Allah (SWT) created the universe as a global school for humanity in order to contemplate it to perceive His lessons and thank Him for all His Favors. For example, through the change of nature over the four seasons, Allah (SWT) teaches us several lessons and also reminds us of His Blessings.

Indeed, the transformation of the weather during the four seasons shows how Allah (SWT) has coordinated the rotations of the earth, the moon, and the sun in order to make our life change through variations of feelings to avoid boredom.

Moreover, Allah (SWT) created the earth in a spherical shape and the sun heats equatorial regions more than the polar regions. As a consequence, some regions of the planet are abundant in energy and other regions are deficient in energy. This uneven distribution of solar radiation is responsible for the imbalance of energy on earth and the constant movements around the dynamic planet. This simple qualitative equation (1) of dynamic systems is utilized to describe these different movements in nature: 

The most amazing aspect of divine science is that Allah (SWT) created water with some properties that allow it to regenerate and to be redistributed through evaporation and condensation in order to be endlessly renewable. The different stages of the water cycle (figure 1) are therefore selected because they demonstrate that water is an infinitely renewable source of life. 

Evaporation of water using solar radiation

“And We have made (therein) a shining lamp (sun)” (Quran; 78:13) [1].

While people are enjoying the sunshine during the summer season, the intense energy of the sun is also unnoticeably initiating the evaporation of water mainly from seas and oceans. This unseen natural process is the interpretation of the Beautiful Name “The Imperceptible” of our Creator.

For this first step of the water cycle, the 1st divine law of charity is fulfilled since the partial pressure of water vapor at the sea level has the highest value (Pw, sea) and decreases slowly to its lowest value (Pw, sky) located in the sky. To apply the 2nd divine law of charity, the gradient of richness (Pw, sea – Pw, sky) between sea level and the sky is considered as the “driving force” of the evaporation process of water. Moreover, using the convective mass transfer coefficient (kair) of atmospheric air, the flow of evaporation of water is regulated by the resistance to mass transfer (1/kair) of the atmospheric air. Therefore, the flow of water evaporated is qualitatively expressed by equation (2):

In order to calculate the flow (WE), scientists in hydrometeorology use the Penman equation. This equation is based on measurements of the mean temperature of the sea, wind speed, air pressure, and solar radiation [3]. 

Transportation of vapor using wind power

“And it is Allah Who sends the winds, so they can raise up the clouds, and We drive them to a dead land” (Quran; 35:9) [1].

When the streets become lively again with happy children returning to classes, the winds of autumn start transporting clouds from over oceans to being over land. The power of the wind could be a small sign of the Beautiful Name “The Strong One” of our Creator. 

This second stage of the water cycle will fulfill the 1st divine law of charity when the air over oceans has higher values of atmospheric pressure (PHigh) than the atmospheric pressure (Plow) of air over land. During this period of time, in order to utilize the 2nd divine law of charity, the gradient of richness (PHigh– Plow) is taken as the driving force of the transportation process of water. The flow of water transported is also regulated by the friction (Rair) caused by atmospheric air. Therefore, similar to the evaporation process, the flow of water transported by the winds (WT) could be qualitatively expressed by the equation (3):

The flow (WT) transported is usually quantified using the advection equation where and the two most important parameters that affect the process are the strength and the angle of the wind [4]. 

Precipitation of rain using earth’s gravity

“He sends down water (rain) from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death” (Quran; 30:24) [1].

When pedestrians start wrapping up in warm clothes, and the coldness of winter darkens the clouds, some places on earth experience rain and snow. As mentioned in the Quranic verse “And we made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” (Quran; 21:30) [1], Allah (SWT) made life possible on earth with water from the rain and snow. This is supposed to make us thankful to our Creator by remembering His Beautiful Name “The Total Provider”.

The last stage of the water cycle is bowing to the 1st divine law of charity because the water contained in heavy clouds has the highest value of potential energy (PEHigh) and the value of their potential energy (PElow) is lowest at the ground level. For the 2nd divine law of charity, the gradient of richness (PEhigh –PElow), caused by earth’s gravity, is therefore the driving force of the precipitation process of water.

It should be noted that the “The Merciful” (SWT) created air with a resistance (Rair) that controls the speed of precipitation of the droplets of water. Without this resistance, rain could destroy vegetation and harm people as well as animals and other living things. Finally, the flow of water (rain or snow) falling could be qualitatively described by equation (4):

This amount (WF) is usually calculated by the intensity of rainfall which indicates the amount of rain that falls over time and it is measured in millimetres per hour (mm/h) [5]. 

“See you not that Allah sends down rain (rain) from the sky, and causes it to penetrate the earth, as water springs, and afterward thereby produces crops of different  colours; and afterward they wither and you see them turn yellow then He makes them dry and broken piece”  (Quran; 39:21) [1].

Indeed, after the hot summer, a windy autumn and a cold winter, nature seems happy during the lovely spring. By His Beautiful Names “The Bountiful One” and “The Sustaining One”, it is a time of abundance and regeneration, with birds singing and flowers blooming. 

“Verily, in the heavens and the earth are signs for the believers” (Quran 45:3) [1].

Since nature was created to obey Allah (SWT)’s commands, all natural flows are fulfilling His two divine laws of charity. In this perspective, contemplating the arrows in Figure 1 from a spiritual perspective, we can perceive how natural flows in the water cycle obey the divine laws of charity during the four seasons of the year. 

During summertime, the divine purpose of the oceans is to use solar energy in order to generate a certain flow of water vapor (WE), predetermined by Allah (SWT), as charity to the dry skies over the seas and oceans. During the fall, the sky over the oceans becomes rich enough in water. It has then the divine duty to utilize the power of wind in order to offer a certain part of that flow of water (WT), predesignated by Allah (SWT), as charity to the dry skies over the lands. During winter, when the sky over the land also gets rich enough in water (heavy clouds), its divine purpose is to use the earth’s gravity in order to offer a portion of water as rain or snow (WF), predestined by Allah (SWT), as charity to the dry land.  

My spiritual thought teaches me that spring is a reward of Allah (SWT) to every single thing in nature after a Cyclic Flow of Charity (Figure 2). 

“And do good as Allah has been good to you” (Quran; 28:77) [1].

Similar to nature, divine laws of charity for Muslims are also indicated in the Quran. There is, therefore, a complete harmony between the signs of Allah (SWT) in nature, scientifically described by universal laws and His words in the Holy Quran. 

For instance, after the gestures of charity perceived during the summer, autumn, and winter, the reward is the beauty of the deserved spring. This reward of the Cyclic Flow of Charity is a sign that comes every year as a lesson for humanity to remind us that the reward of helping people, animals, and plants during this short life is the Eternal Spring with flowing rivers.


1. Interpretation of the meanings of the Noble Quran by Dr. Muhammad Taqui-ud-Din Al Hilali and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, DARUSSALAM (1996).

2. Image ID:42514881, Copyright: casaltamoiola. Upload Date: Mar 13, 2014

3. Lincoln Zotarelli, Michael D. Dukes, Consuelo C. Romero, Kati W. Migliaccio, and Kelly T.

4. Morgan; (2018), AE459, one of a series of the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date February 2010. Reviewed August 2018. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

5. L Gallana1, S Di Savino, F De Santi, M Iovieno and D Tordella (2014); Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface; Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 547, conference 1.

6. L. G. Lanza, E. Vuerich, and I. Gnecco  (2010); Analysis of highly accurate rain intensity measurements from a field test site, Advances in Geosciences 25:37-44.